Turning Operations: In Machining Process Turning Operations used a cutting tool removes material from the outer diameter of a rotating workpiece. In this Article, We describe in details it’s Definitions, operations, applications, uses, working with images.
what is Turning operation ?
Turning operations is a machining processes used in lathe to shape workpieces, typically cylindrical in shape, by removing material from the outer diameter. These operations are performed on a lathe, a machine tool that holds and rotates the workpiece while a cutting tool removes excess material to achieve the desired shape, dimensions, and surface finish.
Must Read : Lathe Machine
How Does the Turning Process Work?
Sure! Here’s a simplified version of the explanation without changing its meaning:
Turning operations are done using a lathe machine. The machine moves a cutting tool in a straight line along the surface of the spinning workpiece. As the tool moves, it removes material from the workpiece’s outer edge until the desired diameter is achieved. This process is used to shape cylindrical parts with both external and internal features like slots, tapers, and threads.
Turning involves using cutting tools that have a single point to remove material from the rotating workpiece. The design of the cutting tool depends on the specific task it’s used for, such as roughing, finishing, facing, threading, parting, forming, undercutting, or grooving. These different tools help achieve specific shapes and finishes for the workpiece.
how turning operations done
Turning operations are performed using a lathe, a machine tool specifically designed for shaping cylindrical workpieces. Here’s a general overview of how turning operations are carried out:
It is important to note that the specific steps and techniques may vary depending on the complexity of the workpiece, the type of lathe being used, and the desired outcome. Skilled machinists and engineers determine the optimal approach based on their experience and knowledge of turning operations.
Types of Turning Operation
The turning process can be of various types, such as straight turning, taper turning, facing, contour, profiling, or external grooving. In general, single-point cutting tools are generally used to perform turning operations. Different types of turning operations are;
There are several types of turning operations commonly used in machining processes. Here are some of the main types:
These are just a few examples of the types of turning operations. Machinists select the appropriate type of turning operation based on the desired outcome and the specific requirements of the workpiece.
Dynamics of turning operations
Certainly! Here’s a brief overview of the dynamics of turning operations focusing on forces, cutting speed, and feed:
1. Forces: Turning operations involve various forces that act on the cutting tool and workpiece. These forces include:
2. Cutting Speed: Cutting speed, also known as surface speed, refers to the linear speed at which the workpiece rotates past the cutting tool. It is typically measured in meters per minute (m/min) or surface feet per minute (sfm). Cutting speed directly influences several aspects of turning dynamics:
3. Feed Rate: The feed rate in turning operations refers to the linear distance that the cutting tool advances along the workpiece per revolution. It is typically measured in millimeters per revolution (mm/rev) or inches per revolution (ipr). The feed rate impacts turning dynamics in the following ways:
Optimizing cutting parameters, including cutting speed and feed rate, is essential for achieving efficient material removal, minimizing tool wear, and obtaining the desired surface finish in turning operations. Understanding the dynamics of forces and their relationship to cutting speed and feed rate allows for the selection of appropriate cutting conditions to ensure stable and productive turning processes.
Cutting Parameters in Turning Operation
Cutting parameters in a turning operation refer to the variables that affect the cutting process and the resulting workpiece. These parameters are set and adjusted to achieve optimal machining performance and desired outcomes. Some important cutting parameters in turning operations include:
1. Cutting Speed (CS): Cutting speed refers to the speed at which the workpiece rotates in relation to the cutting tool. It is usually measured in meters per minute (m/min) or surface feet per minute (sfm). The cutting speed determines the relative velocity between the workpiece and the cutting tool, affecting factors such as tool life, surface finish, and chip formation.
2. Feed Rate (FR): The feed rate in turning refers to the rate at which the cutting tool moves along the workpiece’s surface. It is typically measured in millimeters per revolution (mm/rev) or inches per revolution (ipr). The feed rate determines the depth of cut and affects parameters such as tool wear, surface roughness, and machining time.
3. Depth of Cut (DOC): The depth of cut is the distance between the original workpiece surface and the final cut surface made by the tool. It is typically specified in millimeters (mm) or inches (in). The depth of cut influences the amount of material being removed and affects factors such as cutting forces, tool life, and surface finish.
4. Cutting Tool Geometry: The geometry of the cutting tool, including the shape and angles of the cutting edge, significantly affects the turning operation. Parameters such as tool nose radius, rake angle, and clearance angle impact cutting forces, chip formation, and surface finish.
5. Coolant and Lubrication: The use of coolant and lubrication during turning operations helps to dissipate heat, reduce friction, and improve chip evacuation. Proper coolant selection and application contribute to longer tool life, improved surface finish, and enhanced machining performance.
6. Material Properties: The properties of the workpiece material, such as hardness, toughness, and machinability, influence the selection of cutting parameters. Different materials require specific cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut to achieve optimal results.
It is important to note that these cutting parameters are interdependent, and their selection should be based on the specific machining requirements, workpiece material, and machine capabilities. Optimization of cutting parameters is crucial for achieving efficient material removal, minimizing tool wear, and obtaining the desired surface finish in turning operations.
Procedure to Exact Depth of Cut
To achieve an exact depth of cut in a machining operation, such as turning, the following procedure can be followed:
By following this procedure, machinists can achieve the exact depth of cut required for the specific machining task, helping to meet dimensional specifications and produce high-quality workpieces.
Turning Operation in CNC
Turning operations in CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machining involve using computer-controlled lathes to shape cylindrical workpieces. Here’s an explanation of how turning operations are performed in CNC:
CNC turning operations offer increased automation, precision, and repeatability compared to conventional turning methods. The use of computer control enables complex and intricate turning operations to be performed with high accuracy and efficiency.
applications of turning operations
Turning operations find widespread applications in various industries due to their versatility and capability to produce a range of cylindrical components. Here are some common applications of turning operations:
These are just a few examples of the numerous applications of turning operations. The flexibility and versatility of turning make it a fundamental machining process used in a wide range of industries to create cylindrical components with different features and sizes.
advantages of turning operations
Advantages of Turning Operations:
disadvantages of turning operations
It’s important to note that the advantages and disadvantages can vary depending on the specific application, workpiece material, and machining conditions. Machinists and manufacturers carefully consider these factors when deciding on the most suitable machining process for their requirements.
Reference : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turning