what is centrifugal casting ?
Centrifugal casting is casting process which is used to cast thin walled cylinders ( pipes ) by pouring molten into a rapidly spinning cylinder mould where the centrifugal force from the rotation applies pressure to the molten metal, producing pipes.
The process starts by preheating the mould to a specific temperature. Once the mould reaches the desired temperature, it is rotated at high speeds around its central axis. Simultaneously, the molten metal is poured into the mould, typically through a central sprue or pouring basin. As the mould rotates, the centrifugal force pushes the molten metal towards the outer edges of the mould cavity, forming a hollow cylinder with uniform wall thickness.
As the molten metal cools and solidifies, it takes the shape of the mould cavity, resulting in a finished casting. The rotation of the mould helps in promoting directional solidification, minimising defects such as porosity and ensuring a denser microstructure. The high centrifugal force also aids in the removal of impurities and gases from the casting, improving its overall quality.
In summary, centrifugal casting is a casting technique that utilises the force of rotation to produce hollow cylindrical shapes. It involves pouring molten metal into a rapidly spinning mould, which distributes the material evenly along the mould’s inner walls, resulting in high-quality castings with improved properties.
Must Read : Types Of Moulding Process
Centrifugal casting is a versatile manufacturing process that can be performed using various materials. It allows for the production of high-quality components made from metals such as iron, steel, aluminum, bronze, brass, and copper. Additionally, non-ferrous alloys like nickel-based alloys, titanium alloys, and cobalt-based alloys can be used. The process is not limited to metals alone, as it can also accommodate non-metallic materials like plastics and resins.
types of centrifugal casting
There are three main types of centrifugal casting:
Each type of centrifugal casting has its own advantages and is suitable for specific applications. The choice of casting method depends on factors such as the desired shape, wall thickness, material, and production volume requirements.
On basis of orientation
vertical centrifugal casting
Vertical centrifugal casting, also known as bottom pouring or top filling centrifugal casting, is a specific variation of the centrifugal casting process. In vertical centrifugal casting, the mould is oriented vertically, with the axis of rotation being vertical as well.
During the casting process, the molten material is poured from the top of the rotating mold, which allows gravity to assist in the filling of the mold cavity. The centrifugal force generated by the rotation of the mold then helps in distributing the molten material evenly along the mold walls. This technique is commonly used for producing cylindrical or tubular components with uniform wall thickness.
Vertical centrifugal casting offers several advantages. The vertical orientation allows for better control over the pouring process, as the molten material can be introduced from the top and any impurities or dross can float to the surface. It also facilitates the removal of gas bubbles or trapped air, resulting in higher-quality castings with reduced defects.
Additionally, vertical centrifugal casting is suitable for producing large and heavy parts, as the vertical orientation minimizes the risk of mold distortion or misalignment during solidification. This technique is commonly used in industries such as aerospace, energy, and manufacturing, where the production of large pipes, cylinders, and other tubular components is required.
Overall, it offers precise control, improved casting quality, and the ability to produce large and uniform components, making it a preferred choice for specific applications.
horizontal centrifugal casting
It is, also known as side pouring centrifugal casting, is another variation of the centrifugal casting process. In horizontal centrifugal casting, the mould is positioned horizontally, with the axis of rotation being horizontal as well.
During the casting process, the molten material is poured into the rotating mold from the side. The centrifugal force generated by the rotation of the mold forces the molten material against the inner walls of the mold cavity, ensuring a uniform distribution. This technique is commonly used for producing cylindrical or symmetrical components such as pipes, tubes, and rings.
It offers several advantages. The horizontal orientation allows for effective control over the pouring process, as the molten material can be introduced from the side, ensuring a smooth and consistent flow into the mould cavity. This technique also enables the casting of longer parts with uniform wall thickness.
Furthermore, It provides better control over the solidification process. As the molten material is forced against the mould walls, it cools and solidifies gradually, resulting in a refined microstructure and improved mechanical properties.
It is widely used in industries such as metallurgy, automotive, and manufacturing. It is particularly suitable for producing cylindrical components that require high structural integrity, precise dimensions, and uniform material distribution.
Overall, it offers advantages such as controlled pouring, improved casting quality, and the ability to produce long and uniform components, making it a preferred choice for specific applications in various industries.
centrifugal casting process
The centrifugal casting process involves the following steps:
The centrifugal casting process allows for the production of high-quality, near-net-shape components with enhanced mechanical properties. The rotational force facilitates the uniform distribution of the molten material, resulting in reduced defects and improved casting integrity.
applications of centrifugal casting
Some of the common applications of centrifugal casting include:
It is a versatile technique with a wide range of applications. Some common industries that utilize centrifugal casting include plumbing, construction, oil and gas, automotive, industrial, aerospace, art, and biomedical. It is used to produce pipes, cylinder liners, wheels, rotors, impellers, sculptures, rocket motor casings, orthopedic implants, and more.
advantages of centrifugal casting
These advantages make centrifugal casting a valuable technique for producing high-quality castings with improved properties and cost-effectiveness in various industries.
disadvantages of centrifugal casting
While centrifugal casting offers several advantages, it also has some disadvantages that are worth considering:
It is important to evaluate these disadvantages alongside the specific requirements of the intended application to determine the suitability of centrifugal casting as a casting method.
Source : wikipedia