Single Point Cutting tool : Tool Angles, Nomenclature and Geometry

Single point cutting tool: A single point cutting tool is a specialised tool used in machining processes for removing material from a workpiece. It features a single cutting edge or point that comes into contact with the workpiece, allowing for precise and controlled material removal.

In This Article, We are going to Explain Single point Cutting tool Nomenclature, Diagram, Geometry, Angle, Materials With Images For better Understanding.

what is single point cutting tool?

A single point cutting tool is a type of tool used in machining processes, such as turning, boring, and facing, to remove material from a workpiece. It is called a “single point” tool because it has only one cutting edge that contacts the workpiece during the machining operation.

It typically consists of a cutting edge or point, a shank, and a body. The cutting edge is the part of the tool that actually comes into contact with the workpiece and removes material. It is usually made of a hard material, such as high-speed steel (HSS), carbide, or ceramic, to withstand the high forces and temperatures generated during cutting.

The shank is the portion of the tool that is held and supported by the machine tool. It provides stability and rigidity to the cutting tool. The body of the tool connects the cutting edge to the shank and may have various shapes and designs depending on the specific machining operation and tool type.

Must Read : Types of Cutting Tolls Materials and Their Properties

single point cutting tool Geometry and nomenclature

Here is the single point cutting tool nomenclature, covering the terms you mentioned:

1. Shank: The shank refers to the main body of the cutting tool that is held and supported by the machine tool. It provides stability and rigidity to the tool.

2. Face: The face of the cutting tool is the surface that is perpendicular to the tool’s axis. It is typically located behind the cutting edge and may have various angles and contours depending on the tool’s design.

3. Base: The base refers to the bottom surface of the cutting tool, which rests on the tool holder or tool post of the machine tool.

4. Nose or Cutting Point: The nose or cutting point is the foremost part of the cutting tool that comes into contact with the workpiece. It contains the cutting edge and is responsible for material removal.

5. Nose Radius: The nose radius refers to the curvature or radius at the intersection of the cutting edge and the end face of the tool. It affects the cutting forces, chip flow, and surface finish of the machined workpiece.

6. Heel: The heel is the part of the cutting tool located behind the nose or cutting point, towards the shank. It provides additional support and rigidity to the cutting edge.

7. Flank: The flank refers to the surface or side of the cutting tool that extends from the cutting edge towards the shank. It can be the side flank or the back flank, depending on its position relative to the cutting edge.

8. Cutting Edge: The cutting edge is the actual sharp edge or point on the tool that comes into contact with the workpiece. It is responsible for material removal and shaping of the workpiece during the machining process.

There are two main types of cutting edges:

a. Side Cutting Edge: The side cutting edge is the edge located on the side or flank of the tool, responsible for material removal during a cutting operation.

b. End Cutting Edge: The end cutting edge is the edge located at the end or nose of the tool, responsible for material removal when the tool is fed axially into the workpiece.

Understanding the nomenclature of a single point cutting tool helps in effectively communicating and identifying different parts of the tool. It also assists machinists in selecting the appropriate tool and optimising its performance for specific machining operations.

single point cutting tool diagram

single point cutting tool example

Some examples of single-point cutter tools are router and shaper bits, planing tools, boring bars, and the tip of the tool that does the cutting is called the principal cutting edge. 

single point cutting tool angle

Certainly! Here are the details about the angles associated with single point cutting tools:

1. Rake Angle: The rake angle refers to the angle between the rake face (the surface behind the cutting edge) and a reference plane perpendicular to the tool’s axis. It influences chip formation, cutting forces, and tool life. Positive rake angles have the cutting edge inclined towards the workpiece, while negative rake angles have the cutting edge inclined away from the workpiece.
a. Back Rake Angle: The back rake angle is the angle between the rake face (the surface behind the cutting edge) and a reference plane perpendicular to the tool’s axis. It influences chip formation, cutting forces, and tool life. A positive back rake angle has the cutting edge inclined towards the workpiece, which reduces cutting forces and improves chip evacuation. A negative back rake angle has the cutting edge inclined away from the workpiece and provides better support for the cutting edge in tough cutting conditions.

b. Side Rake Angle: The side rake angle is the angle between the side flank and a reference plane perpendicular to the tool’s axis. It affects chip evacuation, cutting forces, and tool life. A positive side rake angle enhances chip flow and reduces cutting forces, while a negative side rake angle provides more support to the cutting edge for increased tool stability and tool life in difficult cutting conditions.

2. Relief Angle: The relief angle is the angle between the flank of the cutting tool and a plane perpendicular to the tool’s axis. It provides clearance for the cutting edge, reducing friction and preventing rubbing between the tool and workpiece. Relief angles can be present on the flank and end face of the tool.
a. End Relief Angle: The end relief angle is the angle between the end of the cutting tool and a plane perpendicular to the tool’s axis. It provides clearance for the cutting edge during face milling operations and helps in chip evacuation. Proper end relief angle prevents rubbing and friction between the tool and the machined surface.

b. Side Relief Angle: The side relief angle is the angle between the flank of the cutting tool and a plane perpendicular to the tool’s axis. It allows for clearance and prevents the tool from rubbing against the workpiece, reducing friction and heat generation. Side relief angles are particularly important in turning and boring operations.

3. Cutting Edge Angle: The angle created by the cutting edge and a line perpendicular to the machined surface is known as the cutting edge angle. It is the standard angle for turning operations is 90 degrees.
a. Side Cutting Edge Angle: The side cutting edge angle refers to the angle between the side cutting edge and a reference plane perpendicular to the tool’s axis. It determines the direction and effectiveness of the cutting action. The angle can be positive or negative, depending on the tool geometry and cutting requirements.

b. End Cutting Edge Angle: The end cutting edge angle is the angle between the end cutting edge and a reference plane perpendicular to the tool’s axis. It determines the cutting action during face milling operations. The angle can vary based on the tool design and machining requirements.

4. Clearance Angle: The clearance angle is the angle between the flank of the cutting tool and a line perpendicular to the workpiece surface. It provides space for chip flow and prevents the tool from rubbing against the workpiece surface, reducing friction and heat generation. Proper clearance angles are essential for smooth chip evacuation, improved surface finish, and reduced cutting forces.

These various angles in single point cutting tools are carefully designed and optimised based on the specific machining requirements, workpiece material, and cutting conditions. They influence chip formation, cutting forces, tool life, surface finish, and overall machining performance. Machinists consider these angles when selecting and setting up cutting tools to ensure efficient and precise machining operations.

single point cutting tool material

Single point cutting tools are made from various materials, each with its own characteristics and advantages. The choice of material depends on factors such as the workpiece material, cutting conditions, tool life requirements, and desired surface finish. Here are some common materials used for single point cutting tools:

1. High-Speed Steel (HSS): High-speed steel is a popular material for cutting tools due to its excellent combination of hardness, toughness, and wear resistance. HSS tools can withstand high cutting speeds and temperatures without losing their cutting effectiveness. They are suitable for a wide range of machining applications and workpiece materials.

2. Carbide: Carbide cutting tools are known for their exceptional hardness and wear resistance. They are made from tungsten carbide particles bonded with a metallic binder such as cobalt. Carbide tools can withstand high cutting speeds and are particularly effective in machining hard materials like steel, cast iron, and stainless steel. They provide extended tool life and high cutting performance.

3. Ceramic: Ceramic cutting tools are extremely hard and offer excellent thermal resistance. They are ideal for high-speed machining of superalloys, hardened steels, and other challenging materials that generate high temperatures during cutting. Ceramic tools exhibit low heat generation, which helps in maintaining dimensional accuracy and reducing tool wear.

4. Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN): CBN cutting tools are renowned for their exceptional hardness and abrasion resistance. They are suitable for machining hardened steels, cast irons, and other materials that are difficult to machine with conventional tools. CBN tools can withstand high cutting temperatures and provide extended tool life.

5. Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD): PCD cutting tools are made from synthetic diamonds sintered together with a binder material. They are extremely hard and offer excellent wear resistance. PCD tools are suitable for machining non-ferrous metals, abrasive materials, and composites. They provide long tool life and high surface finish quality.

The selection of the cutting tool material depends on the specific machining requirements, workpiece materials, and economic considerations. Machinists consider factors such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and tool life when choosing the appropriate material for single point cutting tools.

single point cutting tools and multi point cutting tool

Certainly! Here’s the information presented in a table format for better clarity:

Single-Point Cutting ToolsMulti-Point Cutting Tools
Number of Cutting EdgesSingleMultiple
ExamplesLathe tools, Planing tools, Router bits, Boring barsMilling cutters, Drills, Reamers, Broaches
ApplicationsTurning, Facing, Boring, Threading, GroovingMilling, Drilling, Shaping, Roughing cuts
CharacteristicsPrecision, Control, Fine Surface FinishesEfficient Material Removal, High Productivity
Suitable forOperations requiring precision, close tolerancesOperations requiring rapid material removal, high material removal rates

applications of single point cutting tool

Single point cutting tools find applications in various machining operations across different industries. Here are some common applications:

1. Turning: Single point cutting tools are extensively used in turning operations to remove material and shape cylindrical or conical surfaces on workpieces. This includes operations such as roughing, finishing, and profiling of external and internal diameters.

2. Facing: Single point cutting tools are employed in facing operations to create flat surfaces perpendicular to the workpiece axis. This can involve facing the end of a shaft or creating a flat surface on a workpiece.

3. Boring: Single point cutting tools are used for boring operations, which involve enlarging existing holes or creating precise internal diameters with tight tolerances. Boring tools can be used for both roughing and finishing operations.

4. Threading: Single point cutting tools are utilized for threading operations, allowing the creation of external or internal threads on workpieces. Thread cutting tools are designed to produce different thread profiles and pitches.

5. Grooving and Parting: Single point cutting tools are employed for grooving and parting operations to create recesses, slots, or separate workpieces. These tools enable the precise removal of material to achieve desired groove or parting dimensions.

6. Taper Turning: Single point cutting tools are used for taper turning operations, allowing the gradual reduction or increase of the diameter along a workpiece’s length. This is commonly used in applications such as creating tapered shafts or machine components.

7. Chamfering and Deburring: Single point cutting tools can be used for chamfering or deburring operations, where they remove sharp edges or burrs from workpiece surfaces to enhance safety, aesthetics, and functionality.

8. Contouring and Profiling: Single point cutting tools, along with appropriate tool paths and machining techniques, are employed for contouring and profiling operations. These tools can create complex shapes, contours, or surface profiles on workpieces.

9. High-precision Machining: Single point cutting tools are utilized in applications that require high precision and accuracy, such as the production of precision components, automotive parts, aerospace components, and medical devices.

These applications demonstrate the versatility and importance of single point cutting tools in the manufacturing industry. Their ability to perform a wide range of machining operations makes them indispensable in various sectors, including automotive, aerospace, medical, and general engineering.

Advantages of Single Point Cutting Tools

Single point cutting tools offer several advantages in machining operations. Here are some key advantages:

1.Versatility: Single point cutting tools are versatile and can be used for various machining operations, such as turning, facing, boring, threading, and grooving. They can be employed on different types of machines, including lathes, milling machines, and machining centers, making them suitable for a wide range of applications.

2.Precision and Accuracy: Single point cutting tools provide high precision and accuracy in machining operations. They are designed with a single cutting edge or point, which allows for precise control over material removal. This enables the production of components with tight tolerances and fine surface finishes.

3.Material Removal Efficiency: Single point cutting tools are designed to efficiently remove material from the workpiece. They generate concentrated cutting forces at the cutting edge, ensuring efficient chip formation and evacuation. This leads to improved productivity, reduced machining time, and enhanced material removal rates.

4.Tool Life and Cost Efficiency: With proper selection and usage, single point cutting tools can offer extended tool life. High-quality cutting tool materials, coatings, and geometries contribute to their durability and resistance to wear. Prolonged tool life results in reduced tooling costs and increased cost efficiency in machining operations.

5.Machining of Various Materials: Single point cutting tools are capable of machining a wide range of materials, including metals, alloys, plastics, and composites. Different cutting tool materials and geometries can be selected based on the specific material being machined, allowing for efficient and precise cutting in diverse applications.

6.Flexibility: Single point cutting tools can be easily re-sharpened or re-ground, providing flexibility and cost savings. When the cutting edge becomes dull or worn, it can be restored to its original condition, extending the tool’s useful life and reducing the need for frequent tool replacements.

7.Machining Complex Shapes: Single point cutting tools, when combined with appropriate tool paths and machining techniques, can be used to create intricate and complex shapes on the workpiece. They allow for precise contouring, profiling, and thread cutting, enabling the production of complex components with high accuracy.

Single point cutting tools continue to be widely used in manufacturing industries due to their versatility, precision, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. They play a crucial role in achieving high-quality machined components in various applications.

disadvantages of single point cutting tool

1.Limited material removal rates.

2.Restrictive for certain machining operations.

3.Limited accessibility in deep cavities.

4.Tool wear and maintenance.

5.Tool chatter and vibrations.

6.Limited machining speeds.

7.Initial tool setup and alignment.

Overall, single point cutting tools are widely used in manufacturing industries for various applications, and their design and selection play a crucial role in achieving accurate and efficient machining operations.

Sources: Mppolytechnic

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