Bourdon tube pressure gauge: Definition, Diagram, Working, Principle, Construction, Application, Advantages and disadvantages [with Pdf]

what is Bourdon tube pressure gauge ?

A Bourdon tube pressure gauge is a mechanical device used to measure the pressure of gases or liquids in various industrial applications. It is named after its inventor, Eugène Bourdon, a French engineer who developed the design in the mid-19th century.

The gauge consists of a curved, hollow metal tube, typically made of brass or stainless steel, which is closed at one end and connected to the pressure source at the other end. When pressure is applied, the tube tends to straighten due to the internal pressure, which causes the free end of the tube to move. This movement is then converted into a rotational motion through a series of linkages and levers, and it is displayed on a dial as the pressure reading.

It is also known for their reliability, accuracy, and durability. They can measure a wide range of pressures, from a few inches of water column to several thousand pounds per square inch (psi). These gauges are commonly used in industries such as oil and gas, chemical processing, power generation, HVAC systems, and automotive applications.

They are available in various configurations, including different pressure ranges, connection types (such as bottom or back entry), and dial sizes. Some gauges also incorporate additional features like dampening mechanisms to mitigate pointer oscillation caused by pulsating pressures.

Regular calibration and maintenance are essential to ensure accurate readings over time. Bourdon tube pressure gauges are often calibrated against known pressure standards to maintain their reliability and accuracy.

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history

The Bourdon tube pressure gauge was invented by Eugène Bourdon, a French engineer, in the mid-19th century. Bourdon developed the design in 1849 while working at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers in Paris.

The inspiration for the Bourdon tube came from observing the behavior of flexible metal tubes under pressure. Bourdon noticed that when pressure was applied to a curved tube, it tended to straighten out. This observation led him to create a closed-end, curved tube that could be used to measure pressure.

In 1851, Bourdon patented his invention, which was initially used in steam engines and locomotives to monitor and control pressure. The Bourdon tube pressure gauge quickly gained popularity due to its reliability and accuracy compared to existing pressure measurement devices of the time.

Over the years, advancements were made to enhance the performance and versatility of Bourdon tube pressure gauges. Different materials were used to improve durability and resistance to corrosion, with brass and stainless steel being common choices.

Bourdon tube pressure gauge working principle

The Bourdon tube pressure gauge operates based on the elastic properties of the Bourdon tube. When a pressure is applied, the oval or elliptical-shaped tube tends to regain its circular shape due to hoop stresses acting on the tube wall. This causes the C-shaped tube to straighten.

To amplify this movement, a gear sector and pinion arrangement is employed. The rotational motion of the Bourdon tube is transferred to a gear sector, which in turn engages with a pinion. This mechanism converts the linear movement of the Bourdon tube into rotational motion.

The rotational motion is then transmitted to a pointer or needle, which moves along a calibrated dial. The dial is marked with pressure values, allowing the user to read the pressure directly.

In summary, the elastic nature of the Bourdon tube enables it to deform and straighten under pressure, while the gear sector and pinion arrangement amplify this movement for accurate pressure measurement.

Bourdon tube pressure gauge working Step by step

The working principle of a Bourdon tube pressure gauge involves the following steps:

It’s important to note that the calibration of the Bourdon tube pressure gauge is essential to ensure accurate readings. The gauge may need periodic calibration against known pressure standards to maintain its accuracy over time.

Overall, the working principle of a Bourdon tube pressure gauge is based on the elastic deformation of the curved tube under pressure, which is converted into rotational motion and displayed as a pressure reading on a dial. This mechanical design has made Bourdon tube pressure gauges widely used and reliable instruments for pressure measurement in various industrial applications.

Bourdon tube pressure gauge construction

The construction of a Bourdon tube pressure gauge involves several key components:

The construction of a Bourdon tube pressure gauge may vary slightly depending on the manufacturer and specific model. However, the key components mentioned above form the basic construction of these pressure measurement instruments.

How Bourdon Pressure Gauges Work

The Bourdon tube is indeed the central component of the Bourdon gauge. It is typically manufactured in a semi-circular C-shape or a coiled shape. The tube has one end open to the atmosphere and the other end sealed closed.

When the system pressure increases, it applies pressure to the inside of the tube, causing it to expand and straighten. Although the change in shape is relatively small, it is magnified due to the inherent design of the tube. This straightening or expansion of the tube is directly proportional to the applied pressure.

The movement of the Bourdon tube is then transferred to the indicator needle through a mechanical linkage. As the tube expands or straightens, the needle moves accordingly, allowing personnel to visually observe the pressure within the system. The dial of the gauge is calibrated with pressure values, enabling direct readings of the system pressure.

The Bourdon tube’s design and elasticity make it a reliable and accurate mechanism for pressure measurement in various applications. Its small but significant changes in shape provide a proportional indication of the pressure being measured, allowing for effective monitoring and control.

types of bourdon tube pressure gauge

There are several types of Bourdon tube pressure gauges, each designed to suit specific applications and requirements. Here are some common types:

These are some common types of Bourdon tube pressure gauges. The selection of the appropriate type depends on factors such as the pressure range, sensitivity requirements, and the nature of the application.

calibration of bourdon tube pressure gauge

Calibration of a Bourdon tube pressure gauge can be carried out using a deadweight tester. A deadweight tester is a device that applies known and traceable pressures to calibrate pressure gauges accurately. Here’s how the calibration process is performed using a deadweight tester:

Using a deadweight tester provides a reliable and accurate method for calibrating Bourdon tube pressure gauges. However, it’s important to follow proper procedures and use calibrated and traceable deadweight testers for accurate calibration results.

application of bourdon tube pressure gauge

Bourdon tube pressure gauges have a wide range of applications across various industries. Some common applications include:

These are just a few examples of the wide-ranging applications of Bourdon tube pressure gauges. Their robustness, reliability, and accuracy make them suitable for numerous industries where pressure measurement is crucial for operational efficiency, safety, and process control.

Advantages of bourdon tube pressure gauge

Bourdon tube pressure gauges offer several advantages, which contribute to their widespread use in various industries. Here are some key advantages:

Overall, Bourdon tube pressure gauges combine reliability, accuracy, versatility, and cost-effectiveness, making them a preferred choice for pressure measurement in numerous industrial and commercial applications.

disadvantages of bourdon tube pressure gauge

While Bourdon tube pressure gauges offer many advantages, there are also some limitations or disadvantages associated with their use. Here are a few:

It’s important to note that while these disadvantages exist, Bourdon tube pressure gauges remain widely used and trusted for pressure measurement in numerous industries due to their overall reliability, accuracy, and cost-effectiveness. However, it’s essential to consider the specific requirements and potential limitations when selecting a pressure gauge for a particular application.

Reference : https://www.wika.com/en-in/lp_bourdon_tube_pressure_gauge.WIKA

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