Modernisation and Mechanisation of Foundries.
Persons engaged in founding industry have to lead a life because of the unhealthy atmosphere prevailing inside a foundry. There is thus a vital need for modernisation in this particular field of industry. Measures that lead to increased production, improved quality and reduction in production costs, measures that aim to improve working conditions with an eye to ensuring a safe, healthy and happy life for the worker deserve both modernization and mechanization.
Modernisation of foundries include : (1) changing over to better and newer foundry equipment (2) employing newer, better, and more economical moulding, melting and casting techniques ; and (3) creating conditions which do not make a foundry dirty, dusty and smoke-filled, i.e. improving working condition in foundries, providing adequate illumination, air circulation, dust extraction, etc.
Advantages of modernisation
Modernisation when properly planned carry several advantages which include the following:
- Improving quality of the casting.
- Boosting production.
- Reducing production cost.
- Increasing safety to the workers.
- Making working conditions pleasant and less tiring.
- Building up morale of the workers.
Mechanisation implies the utilisation of machinery to accomplish the work previously done by hand. Machinery may be used for preparing sand, moulding and core making, pouring, material handling and many other similar conditions. The extent to which a foundry can be mechanized depends upon the quantity and type of production.
For small orders as well as for the production of large-sized castings, Mechanisation is both uneconomical and unpractical. On the other hand, a foundry making automobile parts, electric motors, and similar others where the jobs are of a repetitive nature, Mechanisation is economical and practical.
Areas of mechanisation
Mechainsation has a distinct impact on areas concerned with the preparation and control of sand, moulding and core making, melting and pouring, shake-out operations, material handling, and the control of dust and fume. Some areas in foundry has been described hereunder. These are:
1. Sand preparation unit :- The sand preparation unit consists of a magnetic separator which removes iron particles from return sand, a autoriddle which rids foreign materials, a muller which kneads the sand for re-use, and aerator which helps to improve the flowability of sand, and a hopper which acts as storage for sand before it is sent for mulling
2. Moulding and core making unit :- This unit uses a large number of different types of moulding and core making machines, which have already been described earlier. The extent to which these equipments can be used depends on the nature of production.
3. Melting, pouring and shake-out unit :- It consists of various types of melting furnaces, mechanical charging devices for furnaces, mechanically operated ladles, cranes, lifting tackles, conveyors and vibrating shake-out mechanisms, etc.
4. Material handling unit :- This unit includes various types of material handling equipments such as belt conveyors, apron conveyors, flight conveyors, reciprocating and oscillating conveyors, roller conveyors, bucket elevators, mono-rail hoists, different types of cranes and many others for transportation of sand, moulds, cores, molten metal, castings and raw materials required for production.
5. Dust and fume controlling unit :- This unit consists of a well designed dust and fume collector which can clear the polluted air and maintain hygienic working conditions. This includes filter, cyclone, centrifugal dust collector, scrubbers, etc.
Fig Shows an automated line for medium moulds with pattern circulating facility, semiautomatic pouring and secondary cooling. The layout presents a section of Künkel, Wagner & Condition., West Germany.
Advantages of mechanisation
Foundry Mechanisation provides the following advantages:
- Increased production from a given foundry floor space and higher productivity.
- Action of customs that possesses a higher degree of accuracy, closures tolerance, and better surface finish.
- Enormous saving of time and labour since all operations are carried out mechanically.
- More hygienic and healthy working conditions, and improved job satisfaction.
- Minimised casting defects.
- Reduced of production cost and higher profits
- Increased earnings of the workers.
Modernisation and Mechanisation of Foundries is very important and need of hour to improve the production and ease of process employed which in turn can lead to saving time, effort and money.
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