Carpentry Tools : In order to successfully work different forms to accurate shapes and dimensions, the wood-worker must know the use of a large number of tools. In this article we have given carpentry tools name list and their uses. The principal types which are manipulated by hand are described and illustrated below:
- Marking and measuring tools
- Cutting tools
- Planing tools
- Boring tools
- Striking tools
- Holding and miscellaneous tools
1. Marking and Measuring Tools
Marking and measuring carpentry tools have been developed in order that true and accurate work may be assured. The commonest of such tools are :
Rules of various sizes and designs are used by wood workers for measuring and setting out dimensions, but they usually work with a four-fold box-wood rule ranging from 0 to 60 cm. This is graduated on both side in millimeters and centimeters, and each fold is 15 cm long. All the four pieces are joined with each other by means of hinged joints which make the scale folding.
For larger measurements carpenters use a flexible measuring rule of tape. Such rules are very useful for measuring curved and angular surfaces.
The straight edge is a machined flat piece made of wood or metal having truly straight and parallel edges. One of the longitudinal edges is generally made leveled. This is used to test the trueness of large surfaces and edges.
Try square are the carpentry tools used for marking and testing angles of 90°. It consists of a steel blade, riveted into a hard wood stock which has a protective brass plate on the working surface. Another type is the all-metal square, with steel blade and cast iron stock. Sizes vary from 150 to 300 mm, according to the length of the blade.
Mitre squares are used to measure an angle of 45°. They are made of all metal with a nickel-plated finish or with a steel blade, and an ebony or rose-wood stock. The blade varies from 200 mm, 250 mm and so on to a maximum of 300 mm long.
The bevel square shown in is similar to the try square but has a blade that may be swiveled to any angle from 0 to 180°. This tool is adjusted by releasing with a turn screw of suitable size in a machine screw running in a slot in the blade.
Some wood workers prefer a combination square which is similar to the combination set used in bench work. It is a combination of a square, 45 – degree bevel, set square, rule, straight edge, and center finder.
Marking knives (Fig. 10.8) are used for converting the pencil lines into cut lines. They are made of steel having one end pointed and the other end formed into a sharp cutting edge.
Gauges in carpentry tools are used to mark lines parallel to the edge of a piece of wood. It consists of a small stem sliding in s stock. The stem carries one or more steel marking points or a cutting knife. The stock is set to the desired distance from the steel point and fixed by the thumbscrew. The gauge is then held firmly against the edge of the wood and pushed along the sharp steel point marking the line.
The marking gauge has one marking point. It gives an accurate cut line parallel to a true edge, usually with the grain. The panel gauge, is longer than the marking gauge, and is used to gauge lines across wider surfaces.
The mortise gauge has two marking points-one fixed near to the end of the stem and the other attached to a brass sliding bar. These two teeth cut two parallel lines, called mortise lines.
The cutting gauge has a cutting knife held in position by a wedge so that its projection may be varied for the depth of the cut. This gauge is useful for gauging fine deep lines for such joints as dovetails on wide wood, for cutting the edges of grooves, for inlaying, cutting through very thin stuff to make small strips, and cutting small rebates.
Wing compasses are composed of two finely pointed steel legs which are set to the desired position and held by a set screw and quadrant. They are used when stepping off a number of equal spaces, marking circles or arcs, and when scribing parallel lines to straight or curved work.
The trammel is a form of beam compass, with a wooden beam, to take in work that is beyond the scope of a compass. Divider. Dividers have both points sharpened in needlepoint fashion for dividing out centers.
Calipers are the carpentry tools used for measuring outside and inside diameters etc., especially where the sectional measurements cannot be taken.
Spirit level and plumb bob
These are used for testing the position of large surfaces. The spirit level tests for horizontal position. The plumb bob tests for vertical position. A combination of these two gives a right angle, and they are used where a try square would be far too small.
2. Cutting Tools
Another in the list of carpentry tools name is Cutting Tools. Cutting tools include saws, chisels, and gouges.
The saw is probably the most abused of woodworking tools, chiefly because inexperienced users force it too much. When cutting across the grain, a different action is required from the saw teeth than when ripping with the grain. Therefore, different types of saws are used, as one type cannot do both jobs successfully. A saw is generally specified by the length of its blade measured along the toothed edge, and pitch of teeth, expressed in millimeters. Fig. 10.10 shows the different types of saws in common use.
1. Rip saw
2. Cross- cut saw
3. Panel saw
4. Tenon or back saw
5. Dovetail saw
6. Bow saw
7. Coping saw
8. Compass saw
9. Pad or keyhole saw
Next Carpentry tools are Wood chisel. The most commonly used include firmer chisels, either square or bevel edged, paring chisels, and mortise chisels. They are usually specified by length and width of the blade.
1. Firmer chisel
2. Beveled edge firmer
3. Paring chisel
4. Mortise chisel
Gouges are chisels with curved sections and may be either inside or outside ground. Inside ground gouges are used in exactly the same way for inside curved edges as a chisel would be for straight one ; outside ground gouges are used for curving hollows. Outside ground gouges are known as firmer gouges and inside ground gouges are called scribing gouges. When the later are made long and thin they are paring gouges. Gouges are made to a large number of different curves for different work, and the size ranges from 6 mm, with intermediate sizes to a maximum of 40 mm wide.
The plane can be likened to the chisel fastened into a block of metal or wood, and its blade cuts exactly like a wide chisel. The planes, in general use, are the jack, trying, and smoothing planes, and are known as bench planes. Besides, there are other planes as carpentry tools which are used for special work.
1. Jack plane
2. Trying plane
3. Trying plane
4. Smoothing plane
5. Rebate plane
6. Plough plane
9. Metal plane
10. Special plane
4. Boring tools
Bradawl and gimlet
The bradawl and the gimlet illustrated in Fig. 10.24 are hand-operated tools, and are used to bore small holes, such as for starting a screw or large nail.
The brace is a tool used for holding and turning a bit for boring holes. It has two jaws, which grip the specially shaped end of the bit. There are two types of braces in common use – ratchet brace and wheel brace. The ratchet brace is most useful for turning bits and drills of all kinds, being adaptable (a) for working in confined situations, and (b) for when the cut is particularly heavy and it is desirable to pull the handle through a quarter-turn only. A ratchet brace is shown in Fig. 10.25. The wheel brace (Fig.10.26) is used to hold round and parallel-shanked drills. These carpentry tools are invaluable for cutting small hole, accurately and quickly.
Most other forms of boring tools consist of “bits”. The common types of bits used are shown in Fig. 10.27 and described below:
Shell bit : This bit is used for boring holes unto 12 mm diameter and which do not require a high degree of finish or size.
Twist bit or auger bit : It has a screw point and a helical or twisted stem. This bit produces a long, clean, and accurate hole either with or across the grain. This may be obtained in sizes from 6 to 35 mm diameter. The shorter type is called “dowel” bits and is used for preparing accurate holes to receive dowels. true and
Expansive bit : In an expansive bit the main cutter can be adjusted to varying diameter within a certain range. It is fixed to the desired mark on the scale, and clamped in position by the plate and screw. Expansive bits are made in four sizes with interchangeable cutter for boring holes from 12 to a maximum of 125 mm diameter.
Centre bit : The center bit is the most common. It is used for forming shallow holes across the grain. Centre bits produce an accurate and clean hole and may vary from 3 to 35 mm in diameter.
Forstner bit : It is extremely useful for sinking clean hole partly through a piece of wood and for cleaning out recesses. It has a small center point for commencing and is then guided by its outer rim.
Countersink bit : It is used to shape a hole to fit the head of a countersunk headed screw.
In addition to the foregoing there are, of less importance, nose bit, spoon bit, lip and spur bit , screw driver bit, etc.
Morse drills are very convenient for making screw holes, especially when used with a wheel brace. This is adapted for drilling holes when wood working bits would be spoiled.
Reamers are tapered bits shaped like shell bits and used for enlarging holes.
5. Striking tools
Striking tools in carpentry tools list include hammers and mallets.
Engineers use ball-peen hammers, woodworkers cross-peen and claw hammers. The Warrington hammer shown in Fig. 10.29 is the type mostly used for bench work and all light Jobs. The head is cast steel, the face and peen being tempered; the shaft which is wedged tightly into the head is made of wood or bamboo. These hammers are identified by size numbers and weight, No. 00, 200 gm upto No. 6,550 gm.
The carpenter more often favours the claw hammer (Fig. 10.28) because it serves the dual purpose of a hammer and a pair of pincers and hence it is more prominent in list of carpentry tools. The claw is used for pulling out any nails accidentally bent in driving. These hammers are made in numbers sizes from 1 to 4, weighing 375, 450, 550 and 675 gm.
The mallet shown in Fig. 10.30 is a wooden-headed hammer of round or rectangular cross-section. The striking face is made flat to the work. A mallet is used to give light blows to the cutting tools having wooden handle such as chisels, and gouges.
6. Holding tools
To enable the woodworker to cut his wood accurately, it must be held steady. There are a number of carpentry tools and devices to hold wood having its own purpose according to the kind of cutting to be done.
The bench vice illustrated in Fig. 10.31 is the most commonly used. Its one jaw is fixed to the side of the table while the other is kept movable by means of a screw and a handle. The whole vice is made of iron and steel, the jaws being lined with hardwood face which do not mark and which can be renewed as required.
The bench stop is simply a block of wood projecting above the top surface of the bench. This is used to prevent the wood from moving forward when being planed.
The bench holdfast shown in Fig. 10.32 is made with a cast iron pillar, square-cut screw threads on a steel bar, with a light vice handle and a drop-forged steel arm. By boring a series of holes through the top of the bench, holdfasts can secure the work in any desired position. This is useful for holding a piece of wood down on the bench when a vice is not advisable.
The sash cramp or bar cramp in fig. Is made up of a steel bar of rectangular section, with malleable iron fittings and a steel screw. This is used for holding wide work such as frames or tops.
The G-cramp in Fig. 10.34 is used for smaller work. It consists of a malleable iron frame that can be swiveled and a steel screw to which is fitted a thumbscrew.
The hand screw in Fig. 10.35 is used where a wider area of pressure than that provided by a G-cramp is required. It consists of two steel screws fitted to two jaws made of wood.
MISCELLANEOUS CARPENTRY TOOLS
Rasps and files
These are useful for cleaning up some curved surfaces. For instance, certain concave shapes are so small that the spokeshave are cannot enter them and here a file is invaluable. Scratches left by the file can be removed with the scraper and glass paper. Surform tools introduced by Stanley Tools contain many small cutting teeth, each of which acts rather like a chisel or small plane. The teeth not inclined to choke easily. The blades are disposable and when blunt must be replaced. Flat, convex and round blades are available. Illustrations given in Fig. 10.36.
As its name implies it scrapes (or, more accurately, cuts) very small shavings off the wood. The scraper in Fig. 10.37 consists of a piece of thin steel, hardened tempered. A fine the edge is made by pushing over or burnishing the edge of the metal to form what is called a “burr”.
An oilstone is an essential part of a carpenter’s kit of tools. Oilstones may be either natural or artificial. The best-known varieties of screw driver stones are carborundum, Washita, Turkey and India. These may be obtained in various grades known as coarse, medium, or fine.
Where a surface is covered with innumerable minute imperfections so small that no other cutting tool will do, then glass-paper should be used. It consists simply of small particle of glass stuck to sheets of paper ; it is the sharp edges of these particles which cut the wood.
Glass-paper is made in varying grades according to the size of glass particles. These grades are denoted by numbers such as 00, 1, etc.
The pincer in Fig. 10.38 is mainly used for pulling out nails, tacks, etc. It consists of two arms one arm has a ball end and the other arm has a claw end for levering out small tacks.
Screw drivers are used for screwing or unscrewing screws used in woodwork. These may be obtained in various shapes and sizes but the one shown in Fig. 10.39, known as a “cabinet screw driver”, is considered to be the best type.
The ratchet screw driver (Fig. 10.40) is very useful for turning screws through a few degrees in awkward and confined spaces.
MCQs On Carpentry Tools
- Which of the following is not a marking tool?
d) Scribing knife
Explanation: Marking tool is a tool that is used for marking lines on wood. Bevel, square and scribing knife are examples of marking tools. Chisel is a cutting tool and is used to cut shaping joints.
- Bevel is used for __
a) Setting right angles
b) Setting angles other than a right angle
c) Cutting wood
d) Cutting timber
Explanation: Bevel is a marking tool. It is used for setting angles other than a right angle. In case of setting right angles, a square is used.
- Mortise gauge is used to mark lines perpendicular to the edges.
Explanation: Mortise gauge is used to mark lines parallel to the edges. In place of a mortise gauge, a marking gauge can also be used to mark parallel lines to the edges.
- Which of the following is not a cutting tool?
a) Compass saw
b) Firmer chisel
d) Coping saw
Explanation: Compass saw, coping saw and firmer chisel are examples of cutting tools. Plier is used to take out the damaged nails.
- Which of the following is not a boring tool?
a) Ratchet brace
c) Auger bit
d) Pointed awl
Explanation: A boring tool is used to drive holes in timber members. Ratchet brace, auger bit and pointed awl are examples of boring tools. A screwdriver is used to drive nails and screws.
- Which of the following cutting tools is used for cutting wood?
a) Coping saw
b) Cross-cut saw
c) Compass saw
d) Tenon saw
Explanation: Compass saw is used for cutting wood. A coping saw and cross-cut saw are used to cut timber members. A tenon saw is used to cut shaping joints.
- Dovetail saw is used to cut __
Explanation: Dovetail is a cutting tool which is used to cut timber members. Other tools which can be used for cutting timber are coping saw and cross-cut saw.
- Which of the following boring tool is used for deep boring?
a) Centre bit
d) Brad awl
Explanation: Auger is a tool that is used for deep boring. Centre bit is used for boring holes of various sizes and shapes. Gimlet is used for boring small holes. With brad awl, small and fine holes can be made.
- Which of the following is not a planning tool?
a) Rose plane
b) Bead plane
c) Jack plane
d) Rebate plane
Explanation: Planning tools are used to plan surfaces. Examples of planning tools are bead plane, jack plane and rebate plane. They are also used to cut small moldings along the edges.
- __ is used for sharpening various tools.
a) Claw hammer
b) Oil stone
d) Ratchet brace
Explanation: Oil stone is used to sharpen various tools and blades. Claw hammer is used to drive nails and screws. Pincer is used to take out damaged nails. Ratchet brace is a boring tool.
We tried to cover almost all the carpentry tools list and their uses that are prevalent in the woodworking Industries. Hope you liked the article. Please give your feedback in the comment section below.
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