In this Article , I am going to discuss about Components of IC Engine in details. If you are a Mechanical or Marine Engineer , You should must know about the main components of IC engine. It is because IC engine is one of the important topic which come in Exam or interviews.
Firstly, we know about Ic Engines.
What is an IC Engine ?
An internal combustion engine (ICE ) is an engine in which combustion and ignition of the fuel take place inside the engine. It works on the principle that the fuel can be burnt under extreme pressure inside a combustion chamber.
Now lets discuss what are the main components of IC Engine. The parts of an IC Engine are described below with their working explanation and images
1. Cylinder Head/Cover
The cylinder cover/cylinder head forms the top part of the combustion space and it must be of sufficient strength to withstand the gas load at maximum pressure.
The primary function of the cylinder head is to close the end of the cylinder and to seal the gases involving extreme pressure and temperatures. The cover is exposed to high mechanical and thermal stresses.
Material used:- pearlitic or Nodular Graphite Cast Iron/Cast iron
2. Cylinder Block
A cylinder block is the main body of the IC Engines. It is also known as engine block. An engine block is main structure which holds and contains the cylinder and other components if IC Engine.
The cylinder block is manufactured by the process of casting. The cylinder head is tightly mounted on top of the cylinder block with bolt and studs.
Materials :- The material used for construction is iron or aluminum.
A suitable cooling system is provided for these two components (water jacket, cooling fins). Cylinder gaskets are used to seal all mating surfaces, including the cylinder head and cylinder block.
3. Cylinder Liner
Cylinder liner, in which the compression of air and the combustion of fuel/air mixture takes place inside the cylinder liner, so it forms part of the combustion chamber.
Materials :- It must provide adequate strength and fatigue life.
It readily transfer heat, resist abrasion and corrosion, be able to retain a film of lubricating oil on working surfaces, and have rate of thermal expansion compatible with adjacent parts. It must maintain low wear rates and friction losses from the sliding motion of piston rings under fluctuating pressure and temperature.
Combustion Chamber :- The combustion chamber is the space between the cylinder and the piston top that is enclosed during the combustion process. At the combustion chamber, fuel is burned , thermal energy is released, and pressure is built up.
Note :- It is not a part or components of IC Engine rather it’s a space.
A Piston is an important part of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors, hydraulic cylinders and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar devices.
It is components of the combustion chamber of a marine diesel engine that converts the exhaust gas forces into mechanical power by reciprocating motion. It is a part of diesel engine which forms the lower part of the combustion chamber.
5. Connecting rod
The next in the list of components of IC Engine is Connecting Rod. As the name suggests, this rod connects the top and bottom end bearings, facilitating the conversion of the Piston’s forces into the crankshaft’s rotating power.
The connecting rods are made from a steel forging shaped at each end to accommodate the suitable bearings. The oil hole is bored through the center of the rod to allow the passage of lubricating oil between the bearings-downwards in cross-head engines but upwards in piston trunk engines.
6. Gudgeon Pin
The Pin is made of steel with a hard, polished surface of the bearing. It can be fitted to the skirt or free to float and rotate, to limit axial movement.
7. Piston rings
A piston rings is a split ring in a reciprocating engine, such as an internal combustion engine or steam engine, that fits into a groove on the exterior diameter of a piston.
The main functions of piston rings is to seal the gases generated in the combustion inside the combustion chamber.
It helps to transfer heat to the wall of the cylinder, and then to lubricate and scrape the oil out of it.Getting the quantity of oil right is vital.
Too much oil will cause the engine to burn off during combustion, potentially causing your engine to produce blue smoke, and too little will ultimately cause the engine to seize.
8. Bed Plate
The bed plate forms the foundation of the engine (or constructions )on which the other structural component such as A-frame, all column, and Guides are mounted and it can withstand heavy fluctuating stresses from working parts.
Bedplate supports the Load of the Engine and it’s other Constructional parts and provide a base for the large mass.
A-frames or columns which are fabricated from flat Steel plates welded together. These attachment from the mounting for the crosshead guide, main crankcase covers, Piston cooling supply pump, by Piston cooling return drains.
A-frames are elected on the bed plate to the correct alignment. The assembly forms a rigid box like structure to maitain alignment of all the mountings.The development of long stroke engine and super long stroke engine has resulted in increase lateral forces on the guide.
10. Tie – bolt
Tie bolt or Tie rods are also one of the important components of IC Engine. The main gas load from the cylinder cover are transmitted to the bed plate through these tie -bolts.
A cross-head consists of forged Steel block secured to the foot of the Piston rod. it includes the journal for the top end wearing which acts as a hinge by which the Piston thrust is deflected via the connecting rod to rotate the crank.
The transverse component of this force is transmitted to the guides,and the guide also form part of cross-head assembly.
These are fitted to crosshead engines and are vertical sliding bearings which locate and maintain alignment of the crosshead over the whole length of engine strokes.
They are subjected to fluctuating load from the transverse component of the connecting rod reaction. Guide bars or surfaces are secured to the frames adjacent to the unit and have either cast iron or Steel bearing surfaces.
Guide slippers (or shoes ) are attached to the end of crosshead and may be free to articulate, they are white metal lined with oil grooves lubricated from the crosshead.
The crankshaft is a component enclosed in the crankcase that converts the reciprocation motion of the piston to the rotary motion of the output shaft.
Crankshafts are generally consists of crank web, crank pin and journal and some times counter balancing weights for static and dynamic balancing of the rotating syste.
There are two types of crankshaft’s :-
- A. One piece construction
- B. Built up crankshaft’s
14. Fuel Injector
Fuel injector is an important component of IC engine. It is located on the cylinder head.
It sprays the fuel through a tiny nozzle. Instead of a strong jet stream, the fuel injector sprays the fuel as a mist through a special nozzle. When you open the throttle, your fuel injector sprays fuel into the air, which then enters the engine’s combustion cylinders.
15. Cam and Camshaft
Cams and camshafts are engine components that control the opening and closing of inlet and exhaust valves.
Cam and camshaft are driven by the crankshaft via timing gears, which are designed to open the valves at the correct timing and keep them open for the required duration. The camshafts are also responsible for driving the ignition system.
16. Inlet and Exhaust Valve
Inlet and Exhaust valves are the valve fitted on the cylinder head. Air for combustion is inter through Inlet valve and burnt exhaust gas exhaled through exhaust valve. It is operated by cam or chain drive
Size of inlet and exhaust valve is not same.
17. Inlet and Exhaust Manifold
Inlet manifold :- The pipe which connects the inlet system to the inlet valve called as inlet manifold.
Exhaust manifold :- The manifold through which exhaust gas pass from the exhaust valve.
Grouping of manifold is done in exhaust manifold.
A crankcase is the housing for the crankshaft in a reciprocating internal combustion engine. The crankcase is integrated into the engine block in most modern engines.
I have explained above all components of IC Engine in details with Diagram. If I forget anyone please do not forget to mention in the comments.
FAQ ( Frequently Asked Questions )
What are the main components of IC engine?
What are the main components of Internal combustion ( IC ) engine are cylinder head, Inlet valve, Exhaust valve, Piston, cylinder block, Cylinder, Spark plug/Fuel injector, Crank, Camshaft, and Crankshaft, timing chain, the valve train, valves, rocker arms, pushrod.
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